Bible Study Aids and Research:

(These first two entries are for general scholarship, the remaining ones are limited to Bible Study)

"One Stop” Bible Study Tools: Each includes interlinear Bibles, commentaries, word study resources, concordances, Bible dictionaries, sermon illustrations, and other online resources. .

Bibles  Free audio downloads of the Bible Inexpensive computer concordance.

 Bible Dictionaries Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, Hitchcock’s Bible Name Dictionary, Smith’s Bible Dictionary, and more. American Tract Society Bible Dictionary, the Easton’s Bible Dictionary, the Holman Bible Dictionary, the Hitchcock’s Bible Names Dictionary, the King James Dictionary, and the Smith’s Bible Dictionary. 

 Bible Encyclopedias International Standard Bible Encyclopedia A Web Bible Encyclopedia boasting over 4,100 articles, frequently updated.

 Biblical Archaeology A blog based site with links to other sources. Sponsored by the Biblical Archaeology Society.

Biblical Culture/Customs Topical articles are categorized under four sections: general, Old Testament, Intertestamental Period, and New Testament. Lengthy articles on various topics of everyday life in the ancient world.

Commentaries J.W. McGarvey’s Harmony of the Four Gospels, the Geneva Study Bible, and even A.T. Robertson’s Word Studies on the Greek New Testament. Includes: John Calvin, Alfred Edersheim, Matthew Henry, J.B. Lightfoot, Martin Luther, and Charles Spurgeon. Searchable database by topic or text.

Concordances/Word Studies Search for Bible words in English, Greek, and Hebrew. Search for Bible words in English, Greek, and Hebrew. In doing biblical word studies, you will not need much more than this website has to offer. Search tools for: Strong’s concordance, Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew Lexicon, Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, Encarta Encyclopedia.

Hermeneutics Audio Lectures:

Maps Satellite map linked to Bible texts. Global 3d Satellite images. Lots of bible maps with chronologies.

Original Texts Original texts of church history, searchable by topic. Early Church Fathers. Philo. Talmud. Polybius and Flavius Josephus with Greek and English side-by-side. The most comprehensive web-source for Greek and Latin texts. Jewish Midrash Targum Pseudo-Jonathan and Targum Onkelos. Apocrypha. Pseudepigrapha.

Photo Resources This is helpful for biblical sites, archaeology, and flora/fauna. "Virtual Jerusalem Tour.”

Book of Acts Links

A searchable database for Bible study and sermon/lesson development
General Links page for all kinds of Bible study material
Examples of Socio-Rhetorical interpretation from Emory University
An exegesis of Acts 1:2 from Biblica 81 (2000) 414-417
An exegesis of Acts 13:13, Why did John Mark Leave? By Greg Herrick PhD
An exegesis of Acts 13:13-41, Paul's sermon in Antioch, by Greg Herrick Phd
An exegesis of Acts 13:48
An exegesis of Acts 15 -- The Davidic Promise, by Greg Herrick PhD
An exegesis of Felix (Acts 23-24) from Biblica 82 (2001) 410-417

PBS documentary on the Early Christians
Daily life in Rome -- dress, diet, culture, existence, housing, etc.
A two-part analysis of Peter and Paul's preaching
An overview of Greek religion and mythology (searchable) -- good background study

A Chronology of Paul's life.
A sketch of Paul's life and travels -- good interactive chronological charts

Perseus: An incredible searchable database of geographic and historical information
A tour of many of the cities Paul visited
An interactive (although brief) tour of Paul's travels
Ancient Coastline Shipwrecks

A defense of the historic reliability of Acts
The physical remains of St. Luke
Historical and Archaeological support for Paul's journeys
An academic Link site to resources on Rome and her culture
A sociological description of Paul in Acts by Jerome Neyrey
The Christians as the Romans saw them

Drawings tied to specific text of Acts
A catalogued database of religious and biblical art
Religious and Biblical Art -- look under "Acts (Book of)"

General Life of Christ Links

Description Test:

Text week's database of scholarly links to specific passages in the gospels -- texts, pictures, and movies

History and Culture:

A topical catalogue of ancient sources speaking about Jesus' world


A database of people, images, & dates for Christianity, Mythology, Rome


Paul Maier shows the archaeological and historical evidence for Jesus.


PBS documentary series on the quest for the historical Jesus. Liberal but scholarly at a popular level.


A topical collection of ancient Jewish documents dealing with biblical people and topics.


John Pilch's scholarly essay on the social values of the 1st century Mediterranean

The Historical Jesus:

A collection of contemporary scholar's opinions about who Jesus was and their major books on the Historical Jesus.

Popular/Special Interest:

A popular level presentation from IVP based on the Jesus Film. Nice interactive features & tour.


A searchable database of questions pertaining to Christianity. Popular level and conservative.


A powerful start page for all kinds of Christian sources.


Bible and Art: New Testament - Resources for Catholic Educators -- A searchable database


A catalogued database of religious and biblical art


The Ecole Initiative of Biblical art from all over the Web


An incredible searchable database of photographs of Biblical images & places


Downloadable images for churches and educational institutions


An interactive map and glossary of cities in Palestine in the first century

Harmony, Chronology & Synoptic Problem:

A color-coded harmony of the gospels with parallel texts in Greek


An essay on the chronology of Jesus' life (Catholic, scholarly)


An incredible array of manuscripts pertaining to the canononical and non-canonical gospels. (Liberal)


A fabulous series of lessons through the gospel of Mark, including photographs, artwork, and scholarly links.

Bible Study/Sunday School:

A series of Sunday-schoolish type lessons


A series of Sunday-schoolish type lessons

Life of Christ 1 Links

Section 0, Non-Canonical Gospels
Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles, c. 150-225 c.e.
Apocryphon of James, early to mid 1st cen
Book of John the Evangelist, 6th - 7th cen
Dialogue of the Savior, 2-3rd cen., found at Nag Hammadi (upper Egypt) in 1946
The Gospel of Bartholomew, post 2nd cen.
The Gospel of Basilides, c. 117-38 C.E.
The Gospel of the Ebionites, mid 2nd cen.
The Gospel of the Egyptians, 2nd cen.
The Gospel of the Hebrews, mid 2nd cen.
The Gospel of Infancy (Arabic)
The Gospel of James (Protevangelium), mid 2nd cen.
The Gospel of Judas, c. 130-50 C.E.
The Gospel of the Lord by Marcion, c. 130 C.E.
The Gospel of (Secret) Mark, c. 1958!
The Gospel of Mary
The Gospel of Mary (of Bethany or Magdalene)
The Gospel of the Nativity of Mary
The Gospel of the Nazoraeans, c. 120-150 C.E. (also called Gospel of the Hebrews)
The Gospel of Nicodemus
The Gospel of Peter, c. 2nd century, found in Akhmim, Egypt in 1884; Docetic heresy
The Gospel of Philip
The Gospel of Pseudo Matthew
The Gospel of Thomas, late 2nd cen.
The Gospel of Truth
History of Joseph the Carpenter, 4th cen.
Letter of Peter to Phillip, 170-220 C.E.
Papyrus Egerton 2, c. 120-150 C.E.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224
Pistis Sophia

Section 1, Introduction to Luke (Luke 1:1-4)
Josephus' Introduction to Apion which mirror's Luke's introduction
A general, scholarly introduction to Luke/Acts by Robert Grant
Literary Sources for the Reconstruction of the synoptic Gospels
Podcast #22 on the anonymity of the Gospels by Mark Goodacre of Duke University
Genre and Purpose of Luke/Acts, David Peterson

Section 2, John's Introduction (Jn 1:1-18)
John 1:1; 8:58; Col 1:9 and Christology in the N.T.
An exegesis of this passage as a four-stanza hymn in the early church
Philo's allegorical comments on "Word/logos," "light," and "darkness"
Incarnation and Establishment, Isaiah 52.7-10; John 1.1-18; Christmas Morning 2008

Section 3, The Genealogy of Jesus (Mt 1:1-17; Lk 3:23b-38)
A excellent summary and apologetic for the genealogies of Jesus
A scholarly analysis and proposed solutions to the discrepancies between Mt & Lk's genealogies
Mark Goodacre, Podcast #9: Jesus' Genealogy in Luke

Section 4, Zechariah in the Temple (Lk 1:5-25)
The Temple Theophanies of Jaddus, Hyrcanus, & Zechariah, Biblica 79 (1998)
An overview of Gabriel the Archangel by Hollywood Jesus (cool links to film)
Examination of the date of Jesus' birth based on the timing of Zechariah's priestly service

Section 5, Jesus' Birth Revealed to Mary (Lk 1:26-38)
Art Links: Annunciation
A skeptical investigation into the virgin birth (by
Was the virgin birth story a "copy-cat"? Ancient sources quoted--read carefully
An historical argument in favor of the virgin birth
A site devoted to the veneration of Mary
The virgin birth according to the Qu'ran
Parthenogenesis ("virgin birth") in modern scientific cloning -- BBC News
A bibliography of sources on the Virgin Birth

Section 6, Mary's Visit with Elizabeth (Lk 1:39-45)
Art Links: Visitation
A Catholic argument for Mary as Mediatrix

Section 7, The Magnificat (Lk 1:46-56)
Pope John Paul II's meditation on the Magnificat

Section 8, John's Birth (Lk 1:57-66)
Art Links: John the Baptist
A basic biographical sketch of John the Baptist
An analysis of John's message and ministry
"El Benedictus (Lc 1,68-79) a través del arameo" Biblica 80 (1999) 305-59.
A socio-rhetorical analysis of Lk 1:68-79

Section 9, Jesus' Birth Revealed to Joseph (Mt 1:18-25)
Art Links: Joseph
A Mishnaic Commentary on Mt 1:19
Mark Goodacre, Podcast #20: When was Jesus born?
Mark Goodacre, Podcast #19: Was Jesus born in Bethelehem?

Section 10, The Birth of Jesus (Lk 2:1-7)
Art Links: Nativity
A scholarly survey of the birth of Jesus, history and materials
Overview and chronology of the birth narratives, Catholic Counter Reformation (Dec. 1999)
Historical evidence for Quirinius and the census
A reasoned argument that Jesus was born in a home, not in a stable

Section 11, Worship of the Shepherds (Lk 2:8-20)
Art Links: Shepherds

Section 12-13, Jesus circumcised in the Temple (Lk 2:21-38)
Art Links:Presentation
Jewish practices of birth and childrearing during a child's first month
Jewish background of the Birth Narratives
A scholarly analysis of how Jesus' Jewishness has been presented in film
A fascinating analysis of Mantegna's painting of the circumcision
A fine article detailing the Jewishness of Jesus

Section 14, The Magi Visit Jesus (Mt 2:1-12)
Art Links: Magi
Astronomical explanation of the star of Bethlehem as Jupiter
Astronomical explanation of the star with good illustrations
Star of Bethlehem
Coins of Herod the Great
The three magi in church history

Section 15, Flight to Egypt (Mt 2:13-18)
Art Links: Holy Family
Art Links: Flight to Egypt
Art Links: Massacre of the Infants

Section 16, Nazareth, Jesus' Boyhood Home (Mt 2:19-23)
Archaeology of Nazareth sheds light on Jesus' life growing up
First Jesus-Era House found in Nazareth, Fox News, 12/21/2009
Mark Goodacre Podcast #18: Was Jesus a carpenter?

Section 17-19, Growth of Jesus (Lk 2:40-52)
Art Links: Boy Jesus

Section 20, Mark's Incipit
Priene Inscription illustrating the political use of "Gospel"
Secular political uses of "Gospel"/euangelion

Section 21, The Ministry of John the Baptist (Mt 3:1-6; Mk 1:2-6; Lk 3:3-6; cf. Jn 1:19-23)
Messianic Prophecies
Scholarly survey of John the Baptist
John the Baptist in the NT and in Josephus
An important article outlining the Jewish concept of repentance and forgiveness
Mark 1:2 and New Testament Textual Criticism, by D. Wallace, Dallas Theological Seminary
Art Links: John the Baptist

Section 23, Baptism of Spirit and Fire (Mt 3:11-12; Mk 1:7-8; Lk 3:15-18)
Luke's Presentation of the Holy Spirit in Luke/Acts, by Mark Moore
Baptism of the Holy Spirit -- Catholic Perspective
Baptism of the Holy Spirit -- Pentecostal (Vineyard & Scholarly) Perspective

Section 24, Jesus' Baptism (Mt 3:13-17; Mk 1:9-11; Lk 3:21-23a)
Art Links: Jesus' Baptism
"Baptism and Conversion: A cross cultural perspective in the light of the encounter between Judaism and Hellenism," by William Loader
Mark begins and ends his gospel with a schism (from Kerux)
"The Heavenly Veil Torn: Mark's Cosmic 'Inclusio'"
Baptism: Water & Spirit, from DSS, Josephus, Babylonian Talmud
Information about the Jordan River

Section 25, Jesus' Temptation (Mt 4:1-11; Mk 1:12-13; Lk 4:1-13)
Art Links: Temptation
"Transformed on the Mountain: Ritual Analysis and the Gospel of Matthew" Semeia 67 (1994)
A brief explanation of Lent -- how it arose from this narrative

Section 26, Questions about John's Identity (Jn 1:19-28)
A nice structural/theological analysis of John 1
A brief overview of John's portrayal of Jesus
A brief essay giving information on John
"The Life and Work of John the Baptist," by David Padfield

Section 28, Jesus' First Disciples (Jn 1:35-51)
Survey and theological analysis of the titles for Jesus

Section 29, Wedding at Cana (Jn 2:1-11)
Art Links: Wedding at Cana
How wine was produced from the second temple through the middle ages
A literary analysis of this miracle suggesting Jesus fits the motif of a trickster like Jacob
Pope John Paul II's brief exegesis of this text

Section 31, The First Cleansing of the Temple (Jn 2:13-22)
Art Links: Temple Cleansing
A photograph of the model of the Herodian Temple in the time of Jesus
Q & A: Were there two cleansings?

Section 32b, Jesus & Nicodemus (Jn 3:1-21)
An argument that new birth is to be identified with water baptism
Exegetical analysis of John 3:5
Jesus as teacher in John
A bibliography of sources on the kingdom of God

Section 35, Jesus and the Woman of Samaria (Jn 4:5-42)
Art Links: Samaritan Woman
More Art Links
"Cultural Stereotypes of Women, and Public and Private Space" by Jerome Neyrey
A fine exegetical article on this text by Judith Gudry-Volf of Fuller Theological Seminary
Brief tour-guide description and photos of this site
An astute analysis of racial reconciliation in Christ by a Christian Sociologist
Tony Evans discusses racial reconciliation using this passage as a model
What Jesus said about Worship

Section 36, Jesus returns to Galilee (Jn 4:43-45)
First Century Harbors on the Sea of Galilee
First Century Palestine map with Roman roads
A self-guided tour of Galilee

Section 37, Jesus Announces the Kingdom (Mk 1:14b-15; w/ Mt 4:17; Lk 4:14b-15)
Jesus' apocalyptic view of the kingdom from Theology Today 49/3 (1992)
Scholarly survey of exegetical views on the Kingdom of God

Section 39, Jesus in his hometown Synagogue (Lk 4:16-31a)
A biblical but cautious and practical call to preach politics from the pulpit
A sermon on Jesus' sermon by an influential Catholic scholar, J. A. Sanders
An archaeological study of Second Temple synagogues based on a PhD dissertation

Section 41, Jesus Calls Four Fishermen (Mt 4:18-22; Mk 1:16-20; Lk 5:1-11)
Art Links: Call of the Fishermen
The Galilean Fishing Economy and the Jesus Tradition, Biblical Theology Bulletin 27 (1997)
Pictures and descriptions of a 1st century fishing boat recovered from the lake of Galilee

Section 42, Casting out a Demon in the Synagogue (Mk 1:21-28; Lk 4:31b-37)
Jesus as Exorcist -- a scholarly survey and analysis
Presbyterian Council commissioned study on the problem of a personal devil and demons
Comparative texts on Possession & Exorcism: Philo, Lucian, Josephus, Talmud, etc.
Clean/Unclean: The Idea and System of Purity, by Jerome Neyrey
Links to Demon Possession and Exorcism

Section 43, Healing Peter's Mother-in-Law (Mt 8:14-17; Mk 1:29-34; Lk 4:38-41)
A social-scientific perspective on healings by Jerome Neyrey
A defense of the historicity of Jesus' miracles

Section 44, Jesus' first Tour of Galilee (Mt 4:23-25; Mk 1:35-39; Lk 4:42-44)
Jesus as Healer -- a scholarly survey and analysis

Section 45, A Leper is Cleansed (Mt 8:2-4; Mt 1:40-45; Lk 5:12-16)
Art Links: Healing a Leper
The Leprosy Ministry of Canada -- much helpful information
"Jesus, Purity, and the Christian Study of Judaism" by Paula Fredriksen, Boston University
Pictures of skin diseases

Section 46, Healing a Paralytic (Mt 9:1-8; Mk 2:1-12; Lk 5:17-26)
Art Links: Healing a Paraltic
Questions, Chreiai, and Honor Challenges: Rhetoric and Culture in Mark's Gospel
A catena on this text collected by Thomas Aquinas
Brief description of how honor and shame work culturally

Section 47, The Call of Levi (Mt 9:9-13; Mk 2:13-17; Lk 5:27-32)
Art Links: Matthew (and his calling)
A thorough description of tax collection as a profession
A thorough analysis of Jesus' relationship with sinners
"Reader's Guide to Meals, Food and Table Fellowship in the New Testament"

Section 48, Feasting vs. Fasting (Mt 9:14-17; Mk 2:18-22; Lk 5:33-39)
A seven-step manual on fasting by Bill Bright

Section 49a, Lame Man at Bethesda (Jn 5:1-9)
Art Links: Healing the Lame
Archaeology: photographs of this pool
An excellent description of the major parties of the Jews of Jesus day
A scriptural study showing that there are many believers God does not heal
Mark Goodacre, Podcast #16: Was Jesus' Ministry 3 years?

Section 49c, Jesus' Sermon on Deity and Credentials (Jn 5:19-47)
A sermon by Ray Stedman on John's portrait of Jesus
Standard defense of Jesus' deity

Section 50, Sabbath Controversy: Picking Grain (Mt 12:1-8; Mk 2:23-28; Lk 6:1-5)
A helpful essay on legalism based on this passage
A scholarly argument that Sabbath rest according to Jesus' rules leads to success
A Messianic Jewish site dealing with keeping the Sabbath

Section 53, Appointment of the Twelve Apostles (Mk 3:13-19; Lk 6:12-16)
The Training of the Twelve, by A. B. Bruce 1871 (entire book online)
"Apostles" in the Catholic Encyclopedia, including an argument for infallibility and succession

Section 54a, Sermon on the Mount (Intro) (Mt 5:1-2; Lk 6:17-19)
A helpful overview of the sermon and its interpretation
St. Augustine's exposition of the Sermon on the Mount
"Recovering the Way of Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount" by Glen H. Stassen
A bibliography of sources on the Sermon on the Mount

Section 54b, Beatitudes (Mt 5:3-12; Lk 6:20-26)
The Beatitudes: Spirituality or Political Programme?
Pictures of the Church of Beatitudes
Jesus as Teacher

Section 54d, Jesus and the Law (Mt 5:17-20)
How did Jesus fulfill the Law? by Mark Moore
Jesus and the Torah

Section 54f, Public Piety: Alms, Prayer, Fasting (Mt 6:1-18)
The Lord's Prayer by Joachim Jeremias (whole book)
Testing Temptation: The Meaning of Q 11:4b
The Issue of Forgiveness in the Lord's Prayer

Section 54h, Conclusions (Mt 7:7-27; cf. Lk 6:31, 43-49)
The Golden Rule in Comparative Religions

Life of Christ 2 Links

Maps of Galilee
Map of Galilee
Blank Map of Galilee

Table Fellowship
Jerome Neyrey on meals & table fellowship in the N.T.
Jesus and Sinners

The Power of Jesus
A chart of Jesus’ miracles
Jesus as Miracle Worker (apart from healer and exorcist)
A solid defense of the historicity of Jesus' miracles

Section 55, The Centurion’s Faith (Lk 7:1-10; Mt 8:5-13)
"A Social Science Perspective on Healings", by Jerome Neyrey
A Jewish perspective on the benevolence of a Gentile toward Jews
A brief survey of Capernaum with nice photos and web links
A comprehensive survey of the Roman army and the role of centurions

Section 56, Raising the Widow's Son at Nain (Lk 7:11-17)
Are the dead still raised today?
The Resurrection of Pastor Daniel Ekechukwu
Supposed Links between Jesus and other religious myths
A Skeptics attack on the Christian view of resurrection as mythology

Section 57 – John the Baptist (Mt 11:2-19; Lk 7:18-35)
John the Baptist
Josephus on John the Baptist
Parallels Between DSS Fragment (4Q521) and the Gospel Tradition
Post-Biblical traditions of John the Baptizer
Art Links: John the Baptist

Section 58, Woes upon Korazin and Bethsaida
Archaeology and history pertaining to Tyre and Sidon

Sec. 59, Sinful Woman Anoints Jesus’ Feet (Luke 7:36-50)
Art Links: A woman anoints Jesus' feet

Section 60, Women in Jesus’ Ministry (Lk 8:1-3)
Women in Ancient Christianity
Women in the N.T.
The Gospel of Mary
Arguments for ordaining women to ministry within the Catholic Church

Section 61, Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit (Mt 12:22-37; Mk 3:20-30)
A Sermon by John Piper
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae
New Testament Miracle or Greco-Roman Magic?

Section 62, Pharisees Rebuked For Seeking A Sign (Mt 12:38-45; cf. Lk 11:24-36)
Answers to Islamic criticisms of Jesus -- the sign of Jonah
Who were the Pharisees
Primary documentation of Pharisees and Sadducees
Pharisees, Sadducees, Revolutionaries, and Plain Jews

Section 63, Jesus' True Family (Mt 12:46-50; Mk 3:31-35; Lk 8:19-21)
Jesus' Family Tree
Jesus' Family
Did Jesus have siblings?

Section 64 a-b, Sermon in Parables (Mt 13:1-23; Mk 4:1-25; Lk 8:4-18)
The explosive idea of the Kingdom of God in Jesus’ milieu (Theology Today, 1993 Article)
Sermonic exposition of the parables
A scholarly analysis of parables in the 1st century
Jesus as teacher
A bibliography of sources on parables

Section 65, Calming the Storm
An ancient ship discovered in Galilee (with photos)
Links to photographs of the Sea of Galilee
Art Links: Jesus on the Sea of Galilee (Storm & Walking on Water)

Section 66, Gerasene Demoniac (Mt 8:28-34; Mk 5:1-20; Lk 8:26-39)
Map & glossary of N.T. cities in Palestine
Decapolis--Map and Photo links
Hans Frei deals with the problem of Jesus destroying others' property in Theology Today 49/3 (1992)
Supposed documented cases of demon possession
Art Links: Demons, the Devil, and Exorcisms

Section 67, Healing Two Women (Mt 9:18-26; Mk 5:21-43; Lk 8:40-56)
Medical analysis of the woman's gynecological problem (Christianity Today, 1/15/10)
Women in Matthew's Gospel, Theology Today 47/1 (1990)
A Mishnaic Commentary on Matthew 9.23-24
The Changing Role of Women in the Early Christian World Theology Today 49/2 (1992)
Blurring the Boundaries: A Response to Howard C. Kee Theology Today 49/2 (1992)

Section 68, Three Miracles (Mt 9:27-34)
Interpreting Miracle Stories
Social Science Perspectives on Healings by Jerome Neyrey
A bibliography of sources on miracles
Art Links: Jesus curing the blind (and other healings)

Section 69, Final Visit to Nazareth (Mt 13:54-58; Mk 6:1-6a; cf. Lk 4:14-30)
Photos and descriptions of Nazareth
First century home found in Nazareth
Was Jesus a bastard?

Section 70b, Twelve Sent out in Pairs (Mt 10:1-42; Mk 6:7-11; Lk 9:1-5)
Edersheim (641-4) has several fascinating connections between Mt 10 and Jewish sources

Section 71, Antipas with Jesus and John (Mt 14:1-12; Mk 6:14-29; Lk 9:7-9)
History of Herod Antipas and his family
John the Baptist in the Catholic Encyclopedia
Machaerus--photos & description or Archaeological information
Josephus on the Marriage of Herod and Herodias
John the Baptist at PBS: Frontline -- From Jesus to Christ
Herodias and Salome at the Opera: A feminist appraisal of these women
Art Links: Salome and John’s Death

Section 72, Feeding the 5,000 (Mt 14:13-21; Mk 6:30-44; Lk 9:10-17; Jn 6:1-13)
A Reader's Guide to Meals, Food, and Table Fellowship, by Jerome Neyrey
A Greek Harmony of the feeding of the 5,000 (pdf format)
Art Links: Feeding the 5,000
Art Links: John 4-6

Section 74, Walking on Water (Mt 14:24-33; Mk 6:47-52; Jn 6:16-21)
Son of God in Roman Imperial Titles and Matthew, in Biblica 83 (2002) 100-110
A bibliography of sources on "Son of God"
Significance of Jesus walking on water, at
Art Links: Jesus in the Storm on the Sea of Galilee

Section 76a, Discourse on the Bread of Life (John 6:22-59)
The meaning of trogo and phago "eat" -- a Catholic defense of transubstantiation

Section 76a, Eternal Security – Topical Study
Passage "proving” one can fall away

Section 76b, Crowds Abandon Jesus, (Jn 6:60-71)
Standard defense of Jesus’ deity

Section 77, Ceremonial Cleanness (Mt 15:1-20; Mk 7:1-23)
Clean/Unclean, Pure/Polluted, and Holy/Profane, by Jerome Neyrey
A Symbolic Approach to Mark 7, in Forum 4/3 (1988) by Jerome Neyrey
Jewish view of the Pharisees
Early Jewish quotes on clean & unclean

Section 78, Syro-Phoenician Woman (Mt 15:21-28; Mk 7:24-30)
Social-Scientific investigation of this historicity of this incident in BTB (Spring 2002)
Canaanite Phoenician Religion
Archaeology and history pertaining to Tyre and Sidon
The Women of the Gospel of Mark, in Spirituality Today 43/2 (1991)
Art Links: The Canaanite Woman

Section 79, Ministry in Decapolis (Mt 15:29-38; Mk 7:31-8:9a)
A brief description of the Decapolis
The Feeding of the 4,000 — Were They Gentiles?

Section 80-81a, Encounter with Pharisees and Sadducees (Mt 15:39-16:12; Mk 8:9b-31)
Pharisees, Sadducees, Revolutionaries, and Plain Jews
Three Jewish sects compared in ancient Jewish literature: Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes

Section 81b, Two-Step Healing of a Blind Man (Mk 8:22-26)
Blind Persons in the Bible and the Ancient World, by Felix Just (Loyola University)

Section 82, Peter’s Great Confession (Mt 16:13-20; Mk 8:27-30; Lk 9:18-21)
"Mt 16:18, The Petros/Petra Wordplay: Greek, Hebrew or Aramaic"
The doctrine of Papal Infallibility (at Catholic Resources on the web)
A comparison of Jesus, Zoraster, Buddha, Socrates & Muhammad by a world-class historian
Mark Goodacre, Podcast #5: Simon Peter in Mark's Gospel
Mark Goodacre, Podcast #7: Simon Peter in Matthew's Gospel
Art Links: Saint Peter

Section 83-84, Jesus’ 1st clear prediction of death (Mt 16:21-28; Mk 8:31-9:1; Lk 9:22-27)
"Uncommon Sense" -- a devotional article on self-renunciation in Christian Century 2000
"Son of Man in Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia
A bibliography of sources on "Son of Man"

Section 85, Transfiguration (Mt 17:1-8; Mk 9:2-8; Lk 9:28-36)
A note on Elijah & Moses in Biblica
A ritual (cross-cultural) analysis of Jesus' mountain experiences and transformation
A brief but pointed theological analysis of the historicity and meaning of the transfiguration
A bibliography of sources on the Transfiguration
Art Links: The Transfiguration

Section 86, Discussion Coming off the Mountain (Mt 17:9-13; Mk 9:9-13; Lk 9:36b)
Messianic Secret
"The Sin of Unbelief," a sermon by Spurgeon, January 14, 1855
Survey of the John the Baptist in the Gospels and Josephus

Section 87, Healing of a Demonized Boy (Mt 17:14-20; Mk 9:14-29; Lk 9:37-43a)
A practical guide to fasting by Bill Bright

Section 89, Payment of the Temple Tax (Mt 17:24-27)
Money in the NT--Chart and explanation of comparative value
Description and photos of a shekel (equivalent to four drachma)
Images of shekels

Section 90, Discussions about Who is the Greatest (Mt 18:1-5; Mk 9:33-37; Lk 9:46-48)
An essay on the sociological and political implications of the kingdom Jesus preached
Art Links: Jesus and the children
Biblical History of "House and Home" (including view of children)

Section 91, Causing Little Ones to Stumble (Mt 18:6-11; Mk 9:38-50; Lk 9:49-50)
The meaning of: "Salted with Fire"
Salt as a blessing and curse in ancient times
A covenant of salt

Section 92, Discipline and Forgiveness (Mt 18:15-35)
An important article by a Jewish Rabbi on the meaning of repentance and forgiveness
An evangelical essay on the nature and importance of forgiveness
A survey of forgiveness in the Gospel of Matthew
A Bible study on church discipline
Legal issues regarding church discipline

Section 93, Would-be Followers (Mt 8:19-22; Lk 9:57-62)
A scholarly exposition of this text

Section 94-95, Heading to Tabernacles (Lk 9:51-56; Jn 7:2-10)
The Historical Jesus and the Historical Samaritans, Biblica 81 (2000)
Feast of Tabernacles from a Messianic perspective

Section 96b, Failed Attempt to Arrest Jesus (Jn 7:32-52)
Three Jewish sects compared in ancient Jewish literature
The Trials (Forensic) and Tribulations (Honor Challenges) of Jesus in John 7

Section 97, Woman Caught in Adultery [John 7:53-8:11]
Jesus and the Adulteress, in Biblica 80 (1999)
Art Links: The adulterous woman
Art relating to John 7-10

Section 98-99a, The Light of the World (Jn 8:12-20)
The I AM statements as an apologetic with Islam

Section 99b, Attempt to Stone Jesus over Abraham (Jn 8:31-59)
The I Am statements in John
The account of Jesus’ stoning according to Barnabas

Section 100a-b, Healing of the Man Born Blind (Jn 9:1-12)
Blind Persons in the Bible and the Ancient World, by Felix Just (Loyola University)
Photos of the Pool of Siloam
Art Links: Jesus curing the blind (and other healings)

Section 101, Allegory of the Good Shepherd (Jn 10:1-21)
"The 'Noble' Shepherd in John 10: Cultural and Rhetorical Background"
John Piper’s sermon on Jn 10:16 as a missionary text
Art Links: The Good Shepherd
Art Links: Sheep and Shepherds

Section 103, Good Samaritan (Lk 10:25-37)
This parable in its social context
The Historical Jesus and the Historical Samaritans, Biblica 81 (2000) 202-232
The Religious Cancer of Racism, by James Cone
This is as dumb as it gets . . . really
Art Links: The Good Samaritan

Life of Christ 3 Links

Maps of Galilee
Map of Galilee
Blank Map of Galilee

104 Jesus’ Visit with Mary and Martha (Lk 10:38-42)
Women in Ministry according to the N.T.
Art Links: Mary & Martha

105 The Model Prayer (Lk 11:1-13)
A Rhetorical analysis of the Lord's Prayer (scholarly)
A linguistic commentary and Aramaic analysis of the Lord's Prayer
The Lord’s Prayer in 1207 languages
Joachim Jeremias’ classic monograph on the Lord’s Prayer

106 Beelzebub and the Sign of Jonah (Lk 11:14-36)
The Sign of Jonah – A Response to Islamic Beliefs
The Testament of Solomon with comments

107 Woes to the Pharisees and Teachers of the Law (Lk 11:37-54)
David Growler, "Hospitality and Characterization in Luke11:37-54” Semeia 64 (1993) 213-251.
Jerome Neyrey: A Reader’s Guide to Meal, Food, and Table Fellowship in the N.T.
Jewish view of the Pharisees
Early Jewish Quotes on the Pharisees and Sadducees

108b Warnings on Wealth and Worry (Lk 12:13-34)
"Materialism” according to the Qur’an
The Tension between Poverty and Possessions in the Gospel of Luke

108c Warning: Be Prepared for Jesus’ Coming (Lk 12:35-48)
"Evangelicals & Annihilation,” Part 1, A.Gomes, Christian Research Journal, (Spr 1991)
"Evangelicals & Annihilation,” Part 2, A. Gomes, Christian Research Journal, (Sm 1991)
A Collection of essays defending Christian Universalism
Christianity Today’s report on the debate of Hell among Evangelical scholars
Parables and their Social Contexts -- A scholarly essay on sociology of Jesus' world

108d Warning: Trouble is Coming (Lk 12:49-53)
Scriptural advice for those opposed by unbelieving family members
A feminist challenge to traditional family values based on Lk 12:51-53
An essay on how Jesus broke the boundaries of his social world, including family relations
The Changing Role of Women in the Early Christian World, Theology Today 49/2 (1992)
Blurring the Boundaries: A Response to Howard Clark Kee, Theology Today 49/2 (1992)

109 Repent or Perish (Lk 13:1-9)
Eleven letters supposedly written by Pilate to Seneca the younger
Essay and photos of the coins designed and minted by Pontius Pilate
Repentance and Forgiveness from a Jewish perspective

110 Mustard Seed and Leaven (Lk 13:10-21)
The Obligation to Heal (Luke 13,10-17), Biblica 82 (2001) 402-409
Miracles in Other Words: Social Science Perspectives on Healings, Jerome H. Neyrey

111 Feast of Dedication (Jn 10:22-39)
"The 'Noble' Shepherd in John 10: Cultural and Rhetorical Background" Jerome H. Neyrey
A collection of articles arguing against eternal security
Passage "proving” one can fall away
A Collection of classic articles defending Eternal Security
Jesus’ self-understanding of his equality with the Father
Side by side analysis of characteristics shared by Jesus and God
Art Links: The Good Shepherd

113b Herod the Fox and Jesus the Hen, Weeping Over Jerusalem (Lk 13:31-35)
The Herod Family and their interaction of Jesus and the Apostles
Artwork of Jerusalem

114 Dinner with a Pharisee and Healing of Dropsy (Lk 14:1-24)
Reader's Guide to Meals, Food and Table Fellowship in the New Testament by Jerome Neyrey

115 Counting the Cost of Discipleship (Lk 14:25-35)
An attack on Christianity based on N.T. texts and what they say about family values
How to be a disciple, by Dallas Willard, The Christian Century (April 1998) 430-439.
Salt in the Bible

116 Parables of Lost and Found (Lk 15:1-32)
A native reading of the Prodigal Son by Kenneth Bailey
A Buddhist parallel to the parable of the prodigal son
Art links: The Prodigal Son

117a Parable of the Shrewd Manager (Lk 16:1-13)
An fine interpretation of this parable based on sociological analysis
Art links: "Shrewd Manager"

117b Parable of Dives and Lazarus
The Tension between Poverty and Possessions in the Gospel of Luke
Art Links: "Rich Man and Lazarus"
A common English ballad of this story
Here is a nice history of interpretation and art on Dives & Lazarus
Five variants of Dives and Lazarus

118 Raising Lazarus from the Dead (Jn 11:1-44)
The households in Jn 4:46-54 and 11:1-44 portray John's "church," Pacifica 13 (2000)
Movie scenes that depict the theme of resurrection
"Sociology of Secrecy in the Fourth Gospel,” by Jerome Neyrey
Art links: The Raising of Lazarus

119 Sanhedrin’s Decision to Assassinate Jesus (Jn 11:45-54)
A description of the Sanhedrin from the Catholic Encyclopedia
Brief description of Caiaphas with links to original sources mentioning him
Caiaphas from the Jewish Encyclopedia
The Caiaphas Ossuary (tomb)

120a Healing the Ten Lepers (Lk 17:11-19)
"The Historical Jesus and the Historical Samaritans," John Meier, Biblica 81 (2000)
A social-scientific perspective on healing and miracles in Jesus’ day, by Jerome Neyrey
A synthesis of Jesus’ ministry of inclusion in Luke’s gospel by a Catholic Priest
Pictures of skin diseases
Art links: Healing (look under "Healing Lepers")

120b The Coming of the Kingdom and the Son of Man (Lk 17:20-37)
A restoration forum on the second coming from Melbourne in 1961
A summary of the four millennial positions from a non-sympathetic and unbiased viewpoint
A PowerPoint presentation of five millennial positions, by Mark Moore

121 Two Parables on Prayer (Lk 18:1-14)
J. J. Kilgallen, The Importance of the Redactor in Luke 18,9-14, Biblica 79 (1998) 69-75.
John Mark Hicks, Scholarly paper on Luke 18:1-8

122 Divorce, Remarriage, Celibacy (Mt 19:1-12; Mk 10:1-12; cf. Lk 16:18)
A Catholic denial that Jesus’ gave an "exception” clause for divorce
An argument in favor of Jesus’ "exception” clause for divorce
God’s perspective on singleness

123 Jesus and the Children (Mt 19:13-15; Mk 10:13-16; Lk 18:15-17)
A brief Bible study by John Piper of Jesus and the children
Controversial "Jesus Camp" on UTube [10 min video]
Experiencing the Kingdom as a Little Child

124 The Rich Young Ruler (Mt 19:16-30; Mk 10:17-31; Lk 18:18-30)
An argument by a Calvinist against Lordship Theology based on this text
Sermonic exposition of the rich young ruler form a Russian Orthodox perspective

125b James and John ask for Chief Seats (Mt 20:20-28; Mk 10:35-45; cf. Lk 22:24-27)
Discipleship and Suffering in Mark's Gospel
The Call to Downward Mobility (Mk. 10:35-45) Christian Century (Oct. 8, 1997) 869
Princeton Asian professor applies this principle of servanthood and power to global economics
Art Links: Images of James
Art Links: Images of John

127a Salvation of Zacchaeus (Lk 19:1-10)
The Tension between Poverty and Possessions in the Gospel of Luke, Spirituality Today 37 (Spring 1985) 4-12.
Description of Jericho
Art Links: Images of Zacchaeus

128a & 141 Arrival and Anointing at Bethany (Mt 26:6-13; Mk 14:3-9; Jn 11:55-12:11)
Description of Bethany

128b Triumphal Entry (Mt 21:1-11, 14-17; Mk 11:1-11; Lk 19:29-44; Jn 12:12-19)
Jesus' entry in light of Maccabean regal expectations
Take a virtual tour of Jerusalem
A detailed description of Mt. Olives and its Biblical importance
Art Links: The Triumphal Entry

129a Cursing of the Fig Tree
Why did Jesus curse this tree--an apologetic reply on

129b Second Cleansing of the Temple (Mt 21:12-13; Mk 11:15-18; Lk 19:45-48)
Descriptions of the temple and pictures of a model of the temple
Art Links: The Temple cleansing

130a Some Greeks Want to See Jesus (Jn 12:20-36)
Sociological analysis of secrecy in John’s Gospel (Jerome Neyrey)
Scholarly links for the Greeks seeking Jesus (Textweek)
Art Links: Philip

130b Blind Eyes and dead Hearts (Jn 12:37-50)
An excerpt from Paul Tillich’s The New Being on John 12:44-50

132a Jesus’ Authority Questioned by the Sanhedrin (Mt 21:23-27; Mk 11:27-33; Lk 20:1-8)

132b Three Parables on Accepting/Rejecting Jesus (Mt 21:28-22:14; Mk 12:1-12; Lk 20:9-19
The Textual Problem in Matthew 21:29-31
Intimations of the Year of Jubilee in the Parables of the Wicked Tenants and Workers in the Vineyard
The Use of Isaiah 5,1-7 in the Parable of the Tenants, Biblica 79 (1998) 1-26
Luke and the Wicked Tenants (scholarly and source-critical)

133 Question #1: Paying Taxes (Mt 22:15-22; Mt 12:13-17; Lk 20:20-26)
An exhortation and suggests how to preach politics based on Jesus’ example
Jerome Neyrey analyzes how questions functioned socially as challenges to honor
A brief social explanation and application of this text by Marcus Borg
A two-part article on civil disobedience and taxation from Ordained Servant 4/3 (1995)

134 Questions #2: Marriage in the Resurrection (Mt 22:23-33; Mk 12:18-27; Lk 20:27-40)
Reader's Guide to Kinship, Biblical Theology Bulletin 24 (1994) 183-94
An argument FOR marriage in heaven from the Swedenborg church (You’ve gotta see this!)

135 Question #3: The Greatest Command (Mt 22:34-40; Mk 12:28-34)
Is Self-Love Biblical?

136 Question #4: How can the Christ be David’s Son? (Mt 22:41-46; Mk 12:35-37; Lk 20:41-44)
A Jewish Rabbi's reply to a Christian explanation of this text
An atheist website offers a commentary on this text

137a Woes to Pharisees (Mt 23:1-36; Mk 12:38-40; Lk 20:45-47; cf. Lk 11:37-54)
Jerome Neyrey’s sociological analysis of clean and unclean
A catalogue and brief exposition of all the opposition Jesus experienced from the Pharisees
A Catholic defense for calling priests father in light of Mt 23:9
Phylacteries, Mezuzah, and Torah Scroll

138 Widow’s Mite (Mk 12:41-44; Lk 21:1-4)
Excellent and surprising exegesis – This passage is about NOT abusing offerings as leaders
Do you want to see a picture of the widow's mite? Click here.
Contemporary meditation on devouring widow's houses (powerful illustrations)
Art Links: Widow's Mite OR for a modern painting of this scene click here.

Life of Christ 4 Links

LoC Notebook
Take a virtual tour of Jerusalem
Photographs of important sites in Jerusalem
Ancient maps of Jerusalem

Sec. 139a, The Olivet Discourse (Mt 24:41; Mk 13:1-32; Lk 21:5-33)
Josephus' description of the war and destruction of Jerusalem A.D. 70
Nice description and pictorial reconstruction of the Temple Mount
A study advocating all of Mt 24 refers to 70 A.D.(Amillennial)
A collection of Preterist articles assertion that Jesus' return was in 70 A.D.
A response to a Preterist interpretation of Mt 24

Sec. 139b, Beginning of Birth Pangs (Mt 24:4-14; Mk 13:5-13; Lk 21:8-19)
A classic misinterpretation of the "signs of the time" (earthquakes, families, wars, etc.) as harbingers of Jesus' immanent return

Sec. 139c, Abomination of Desolation (Mt 24:15-22; Mk 13:13-20; Lk 21:20-24)
Abomination of Desolation -- Catholic Encyclopedia short definition
Abomination of Desolation -- Jewish Encyclopedia short definition

Sec. 139f-g, Parables of Jesus' Return (Mt 24:42-25:46; Mk 13:33-37; Lk 21:34-36)
An analysis of the parables of the Olivet Discourse with reference to salvation
Art Links: Wise and Foolish Virgins

Sec. 140, Sanhedrin Plot to Kill Jesus (Mt 26:1-5; Mk 14:1-2; Lk 22:1-2)
Survey and analysis of the reality and meaning of the Death of Jesus
Messianic Prophecies

Sec. 141, Mary Anoints Jesus' Feet (Mt 26:6-13; Mk 14:3-9; Jn 12:2-8)
Women in Jesus' ministry and early Christianity (by a Feminist Harvard N.T. Scholar)
A devotional look at Mary's anointing as a model of Christian worship
"Holy Waste" a chapter from Paul Tillich's book The New Being
Description and significance of Bethany, with photos (Select Bethany from the location menu)

Sec. 142, Judas Iscariot's Plot to Arrest Jesus (Mt 26:14-16; Mk 14:10-11; Lk 22:3-6)
Judas Iscariot presents a problem for the theory of eternal security
Art Links: Denial and Betrayal

Sec. 143, Preparation for the Passover Meal (Mt 26:17-19; Mk 14:12-16; Lk 22:7-13)
A fair scholarly discussion on the dating of the Passover meal and Jesus' Last Supper
A Jewish description of the Passover, its meaning, and its current manner of celebration
A description of the Passover Jesus celebrated and its theological meaning
A practical guide to a Christian Seder celebration, including recipes
An excellent and thorough 4 part analysis of this last meal

Sec. 144, Argument over Greatness (Mt 26:20; Mk 14:17; Lk 22:14-16, 24-30)
An analysis of Jesus' message on greatness in the kingdom from Luke's gospel

Sec. 145, Jesus washes the Apostles' feet (Jn 13:1-20)
Images depicting this scene
Should we wash each others' feet today?
Foot washing is an ordinance we should observe today with communion (Church of God)
Art Links: Washing the Disciple's Feet

Sec 146, Identification of the Betrayer (Mt 26:21-25; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21-23; Jn 13:21-30)
A scholarly, feminist, and bizarre suggestion that "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (Jn 13:13) was Mary Magdalene, the author of the fourth gospel
Art Links: Judas Iscariot

Sec 148, The Lord's Supper (Mt 26:26-29; Mk 14:22-25; Lk 22:17-20; 1 Cor 11:23-26)
A survey of opinions and practices of the Lord's Supper
A Presbyterian Church's guide to the Lord's supper (very familiar!)
Lutheran (Missouri Synod) official teaching on the Lord's supper (including consubstantiation)
Catholic apologetics site argues for transubstantiation
A survey of the scholarly debate as to whether Luke supports substitutionary atonement
A nice little description of the upper room (Cenacle) in religious history
Art Links: Last Supper

Sec 149, Upper Room Discourse: Jesus Goes the H.S. Comes (Jn 14)
Augustine's Tractates on John (see tractates 67-73)
"Johannine Sayings in the Gospel of Thomas" by Alexander Mirkovic PhD
"The Holy Spirit" by Michael Welker, Theology Today 46/1 (1989)
A comparison of Jesus, Zoraster, Buddha, Socrates & Muhammad by a world-class historian

Sec 150a, Upper Room Discourse: Vine and Branches (Jn 15:1-17)
John MacArthur gives a classic "Eternal Security" explanation of this text

Sec 150b, Upper Room Discourse: Opposition from the World (Jn 15:18-16:4)
Outline of the Holy Spirit's roles in this text (sermon by John MacArthur)
Voice of the Martyrs -- Information on persecution worldwide -- Information on persecution worldwide

Sec 150c, Upper Room Discourse: The Spirit's Coming Ministry (Jn 16:5-15)
The Holy Spirit in John's Gospel

Sec 151, The Lord's Prayer (Jn 17)
A helpful analysis of the High Priestly prayer of Jesus

Sec 152, Jesus' Prayer in Gethsemane (Mt 26:36-46; Mk 14:32-42; Lk 22:39-46)
A theological analysis of Jesus' suffering in Gethsemane (from Kerux online journal)
An essay on the importance of Christians imitating Jesus' life of suffering

Sec 153, Betrayal and Arrest in Gethsemane (Mt 26:47-56; Mk 14:43-52; Lk 22:47-53; Jn 18:1-12)
Artwork depicting Jesus' betrayal and denial
Argues that the "streaker" is Mark was actually Lazarus, in Biblica 79 (1998) 525-531
Honor and shame in the Johannine passion narratives, by Jerome Neyrey
Brief description of how honor and shame work culturally
Scholarly, liberal description of the arrest and execution of Jesus
Art Links: Denial and Betrayal

Sec 154-155, Jewish Trials (Mt 26:57-68; Mk 14:53-65; Lk 22:54-65; Jn 18:12b-24)
A legal and historical description of Jesus trial from University of Missouri Law School
A lengthy article defending the trial accounts as authentic and historical
A lawyer looks at the trial accounts, especially their breeches of justice
The Sadducean high priests were responsible for Jesus' death along with the Romans (Messianic perspective
A bibliography of sources on the trials of Jesus

Sec 156, Peter's Denials (Mt 26:69-75; Mk 14:66-72; Lk 22:54-62; Jn 18:15-18, 25-27)
Art Links: Denial and Betrayal

Sec 158, Suicide of Judas Iscariot (Mt 27:3-10; Acts 1:18-19)
One person's explanation of the differences in these accounts
Judas Iscariot: Presented as innocent in scholarship and film

Sec 159, Trial before Pilate (Mt 27:2, 11-14; Mk 15:1-5; Lk 23:1-5; Jn 18:28-38)
Primary sources testifying to insurrections under Pilate's reign
"Answering Pilate: Truth and the Postliberal Church" by William Willimon
Quest for the historical Pontius Pilate
Coins of Pontius Pilate

Sec 160, Trial before Herod (Lk 23:6-12)
An encyclopedia article on Herod Antipas
A brief survey of the Herods of the Bible and how the interacted the Christian movement

Sec 161 & 162, Trial before Pilate... again (Mt 27:15-30; Mk 15:6-20; Lk 23:13-25; Jn 18:39-19:16)
A commentary on Mark 15:10: An anatomy of Envy in Mark's Gospel (Hagedorn & Neyrey)
The presentation of Jesus as king in John (only after chapter 18)
Evidence that Jesus understood the Greek language
Artwork depicting Jesus' trials, flagellation, and Via Dolorosa

Sec 163, En Route to Golgotha (Mt 27:31-34; Mk 15:20-23; Lk 23:26-33; Jn 19:16-17)
A guide (with photos) of Jesus' final steps toward Golgotha
Stations of the Cross devotions by Mother Angelica
Protestant stations of the cross
"Alexander Son of Simon" Ossuary
Art Links: Trial on route to Golgotha

Sec 164, Jesus' Crucifixion (Mt 27:35-44; Mk 15:24-32; Lk 23:33-43; Jn 19:18-27)
The classic medical description of Jesus' crucifixion from Journal of the American Medical Association (March 21, 1986, Vol 256)
Messianic prophecies fulfilled by Jesus
A scholarly essay on the crucifixion of Jesus
A bibliography of sources on the crucifixion
Art Links: Crucifixion

Sec 165, Jesus' Death (Mt 27:45-50; Mk 15:33-37; Lk 23:44-46; Jn 19:38-30)
An exegetical and hermeneutical analysis of Jesus' use of Psalm 22 (Theology Today 42/3)
Islamic sources on the death of Jesus in India, not on a cross
Artwork depicting Jesus being taken from the cross (lamentation, deposition, & pieta)

Sec 166, Responses to Jesus' Death (Mt 27:51-56; Mk 15:38-41; Lk 23:47-49)
The Centurion's "so called" confession (Mk 15:39) in Biblica 81 (2000) 406-413.
The Centurion's confession seen in light of the imperial cult in Biblica 79 (1998) 221-241.
A literary analysis of the "schism" chiasm in Mark's gospels
A skeptic's analysis of the resurrection of the saints at Jesus' death
Art Links: Deposition

Sec 167b, Jesus Buried (Mt 27:59-60; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53-54; Jn 19:39-42)
An historical description of the burial clothes -- simple white linens
Three apocryphal traditions of Jesus' burial at variance with the biblical accounts
A site dedicated to presenting the evidence that would authenticate the shroud
A fair, balanced, brief survey of the shroud of Turin
A collection of scientific papers on the Shroud of Turin
Art Links: Burial

Sec 168, Women and Soldiers Watch the Tomb (Mt 27:61-66; Mk 15:47; Lk 23:55-56)
Jesus and Women: Luke's Gospel (Theology Today 43/2 [July 1986])
W. L. Craig argues that the story of the guards at the tomb is historical evidence for the resurrection
Women in the NT
The positive role of women in the N.T. contrasted with ancient values of women by H.C. Kee
A rejoiner to H.C. Kee -- women were not as liberated as he suggests
The Gospel of Mary (a gnostic document)

Sec 169-171, Women find the tomb empty (Mt 28:1-8; Mk 16:1-8; Lk 24:1-10; Jn 20:1)
Thorough, scholarly article defending the historicity of the empty tomb by W. L. Craig
A scholarly, philosophic, and apologetic defense of the resurrection
Josh McDowell's synopsis of the evidence for the resurrection
A classic liberal interpretation of the resurrection as "spiritual" by Bishop Spong
A reasoned anti-resurrection argument from a Muslim website
A bibliography of sources on the Resurrection
Art Links: Resurrection

Sec 172, Peter & John investigate the tomb (Lk 24:9-12; Jn 20:2-10)
William Lane Craig discusses the interdependence of Lk & Jn in this pericope
Ancient resurrection stories compared with the Gospel accounts, Journal of Higher Criticism 4/2 (1997)
Pagan myths are dissimilar from Jesus' resurrection story
An analysis of the structure and theology John 20 for the American Bible Society

Sec 173, Appearance to Mary Magdalene (Mk 16:9-11; Jn 20:11-18)
A description of Mary Magdalene through Scripture and tradition
Oscar Cullman's pamphlet on the the bodily resurrection vs. immortality of the soul
Dead Messiah's who don't raise from the dead
Art Links: Mary Magdalene
Art Links: "Noli Me Tangere"

Sec 174, Appearance to the other women (Mt 28:9-10)
A general fact sheet (including a chronology) of the resurrection
Contradictions in the resurrection accounts, alleged by a Muslim
A proposed harmony of the resurrection appearances
An advanced and scholarly discussion on harmonization of the resurrection accounts

Sec 175, The Soldier's Report (Mt 28:11-15)
A lesson responding to the accusation that the disciples stole the body

Sec 176, Two on their way to Emmaus ([Mk 16:12-13]; Lk 24:13-32)
Art Links: Emmaus

Sec 179, Appearance to Thomas (Jn 20:26-31; 1 Cor 15:5b)
Resources on the gospel of Thomas
A critique of the gospel of Thomas by Craig Evans in Christianity Today
Art Links: Thomas

Sec 180, Appearance to the Seven while fishing (Jn 21:1-25)
An odd yet fascinating numerological interpretation of the 153 fish

Sec 181, The Great Commission (Mt 28:16-20; [Mk 16:15-18])
A focus on Christian Education as essential to the Great Commission

Sec 184, The Ascension ([Mk 16:19-20]; Lk 24:50-53; Acts 1:9-12)
A conservative theological synthesis of the meaning of the ascension
Ascent to heaven in Antiquity
Art Links: Ascension

Reliable Links on Demon Possession

Can a Christian be Demon Possessed?
A balanced debate by two independent authors.
A strong argument for the possibility of Christians being possessed (part 1)
A strong argument for the possibility of Christians being possessed (part 2)
A helpful and sane "corrective" to deliverance ministries who give too much credibility to the devil

General Overview of the Subject, especially Scriptural data:
Early church literature on exorcisms
A general handbook
Argues that demon possession did not last past the apostolic age.

Psychological Perspectives:
This paper explains (away?) demonic manifestations through psychological explanations.

Exegetical Articles:
Exegesis of the Gerasene Demoniac, Mark 5:1-20

Historical Studies:
Demonism in Jewish/Hellenistic Literature and Its Relation to Mark 5
Jesus and Demons in the Gospel of Mark, Journal of Applied Missiology 7/2 (Oct 1996)

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